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Russian Monument-Berlin



The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

,Russian: Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (SSSR)), also called Soviet Union , Sovšetsky Soyšuz), was a state in much of the northern region of Eurasia that existed from 1922 until 1991. The list of republics in the Soviet Union varied over the time. In its final years it consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (S.S.R.'s).
Russia was by far the largest Republic in the Soviet Union, dominating in nearly all respects: land area, population, economic output, and political influence. The territory of the Soviet Union also varied, and in its most recent times approximately corresponded to that of the late Imperial Russia, with notable exclusions of Poland and Finland.
The political organization of the country was defined by the only recognized political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

History of the Soviet Union

Communist Party General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev

promoted Soviet glasnost (openness) and perestroika (economic restructuring). A U.S.-Soviet summit meeting in 1986 and 1987 and a meeting of U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Gorbachev in late 1988 brought a reduction in arms in Europe.

The disintegration of Communist allies in Eastern Europe heralded the dissolution of the Soviet Union. As the Russian republic's Boris Yeltsin eclipsed Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in power, the Soviet Union was peacefully dissolved in December 1991. Most former Soviet republics joined the Commonwealth of Independent States.

Republics of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union was a federation of Socialist Soviet Republics (SSR). The first Republics were established shortly after the October Revolution of 1917. At that time, republics were technically independent one from another but their governments acted in close coordination. In 1922, four Republics (Russian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Belorussian SSR and Transcaucasian SFSR) joined into the Soviet Union. Between 1922 and 1940, the number of Republics grew to sixteen. Some of new Republics were formed from territories conquered by the Soviet Union, others by splitting existing Republics into several parts. The criteria for establishing new republics were as follows:

to be located on the periphery of the Soviet Union so as to be able to exercise their alleged right to secession, be economically strong enough to survive on their own upon secession and be named after the dominant ethnic group which should consist of at least one million people.

The system remained almost unchanged after 1940. No new Republics were established. One republic, Karelo-Finnish SSR, was disbanded in 1956. The remaining 15 Republics existed until the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991 and became independent countries, with some still loosely organized under the heading Commonwealth of Independent States.

Some republics had common history and geographical regions, and were referred by group names. These were Baltic Republics, Transcaucasian Republics, and Central Asian Republics.


Former Soviet Republics Commonwealth of Independent States


Armenian SSR Armenia
Azerbaijan SSR Azerbaijan
Byelorussian SSR Belarus
Estonian SSR Estonia
independent,non-member state
Georgian SSR
Kazakh SSR Kazakhstan
Kirghiz SSR Kyrgyzstan
Latvian SSR Latvia
independent,non-member state
Lithuanian SSR Lithuania
independent,non-member state
Moldavian SSR Moldova
Russian SFSR Russian Federation
Tadzhik SSR Tajikistan
Turkmen SSR Turkmenistan
Ukrainian SSR Ukraine
Uzbek SSR Uzbekistan

About this site:
This site is mainly about the heroic people of the former Soviet Union.

The Tragedy of the Soviet Union is a sample of giant proportions
how oppression once unleashed on small scale will grow into a fullfledged police state,

depriving its citizens of basic freedom and self-development of talents and intellect, necessary for growth into a healthy nation.

The 1917 revolution and the brutal , rutheless killing of the Royal Russian Family  fore-boded reign by fear and force.

People need and seek freedom at all costs ! Tyranny , Despotism and brutal force is doomed to downfall in the longrun !

A people can only unfold its full potentional in freedom and happiness !!
We look to the Russian Federation and the Commonwealth of Independent States, CIS, to finally bring about that freedom and happiness the Russian and Asian peoples so richly deserve !!!







Webmaster-SUHIS Soviet Union Historical Society - Moscow - Berlin - Jerusalem - Hamburg - Odessa - St. Petersburg - All Rights reserved - 2004-2006

last update: 29-04-2006